The New China Syndrome—Footnotes

1 Guy Debord, La planète malade (Paris, 2004).
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2 Ian Cobain and Adam Luck, "The beauty products from the skin of executed Chinese prisoners," London Guardian, September 13, 2005.
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3 China Labor Bulletin, ""The Plight of E-Waste Wokers," August 15, 2005.
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4 Xiangquan Zeng, et. al, "Working time in transition: The dual task of standardization and flexibilization in China,"International Labor Organization (Genva, 2005).
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5 CIA's 2005 World Fact Book describes unemployment as "9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)." Meanwhile, the Chinanews.cn May 25, 2005 article "Youth unemployment rate remains high," puts the official average unemployment rate for Chinese society at 6.1%. Given that even slight differences in rates equate to huge numbers of people because of China's size, I wouldn't want to say that there are, for example, 170 million unemployed people in China when the number in the rural areas alone may exceed that figure.
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6 Michael Sheridan. "China's hidden trade in children." Sunday Times, September 25, 2005.
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7 Beth Burwinkel. "The Great Wall." Kentucky Courier-Journal, n.d.
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8 Louis Uchitelle, "When the Chinese Consumer Is King," New York Times, December 14, 2003. South China Mall in Donguang is the world's largest shopping mall, and by 2010, seven of the world's ten largest malls will be in China. Industry reports also that the rfid (radio frequency identification device) market is expanding rapidly in ID cards and consumer goods will likely follow, presenting some obsessed capitalist with the prospect of knowing who has what and where.
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9 Jonathan Watts, "Suicide blights China's young adults," Guardian International, July 26, 2005.
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10 Worldwatch Institute, Vital Signs (Washington, 2005).
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11 See Section II under the subhead Anti-Pollution Riots.
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12 Because of dams and pollution, migratory ducks compete with farm animals for resources; as they come into contact, the H5N1 virus spreads to animals who have spread it to humans. Authorities responded with the mass slaughter of birds, the so-called cull, in 2004.
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13 See Section I under the subhead Workers Suffer and Die.
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14 Philippe Arbaizar, et al. Henri Cartier-Bresson—the Man, the Image and the World (London, 2003).
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15 China Daily, "Beijing moves to put private cars in check," April 4, 2005.
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16 Xinhua, "Income gap in China critical by 2010, experts warn," Augst 22, 2005. A team of income research specialists devised a color-coded warning system to predict trends. It is now yellow but may reach the red zone, which indicates the "disparity is totally unacceptable" and threatens social stability.
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17 International Finance Corporation, "IFC Publishes First Analysis of Private Sector in China," October 18, 2000; see also, China.org, "Private Sector: Pillar of Growth," March 10, 2004; see also, China.org, "Development of the Non-state Owned Sector," November 7, 2003.
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18 United Kingdom, European Union, New Zealand, Australia, etc.
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19 CIA, 2005 World Handbook (online edtion).
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20 Liu Li, "Rivers polluted, drinking water tainted," China Daily. June 30, 2005; see also, Wei Wu and Shan Chungang, "China to adopt fresh bids for environmental goals," Xinhua, June 29, 2005.
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21 Watts, op. cit.
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22 Michael Elliot, "China's New Revolution," Time, June 27, 2005 - shows steadily rising retail sales, cell-phone ownership, car ownership and aircraft departures.
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23 Xinhua, "Premier Wen stresses building of harmonious society," March 5, 2005; Xinhua, "Building harmonious society crucial for China's progress: Hu," June 26, 2005.
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24 Interview with Elizabeth Economy of the Council on Foreign Relations website.
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25 BBC News, August 8, 2005; see also, Mure Dickie, "15 deaths a day as China digs deep for coal," December 21, 2004.
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26 J. Takala, "Introductory Report: Decent Work - Safe Work," International Labor Organization (Geneva, 2005).
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27 I interviewed the Marxist legislator Leung Kwok—hung, known as Long Hair, in his highly secure government office festooned with agit-prop banners, such as the white one in red characters, "Your heart and life are calm because you have no regrets...your spirit will be strong even though you face great difficulty." With his hair and Che t-shirt, his hand-rolled cigarettes in the no smoking building, and most of all with his large following in the poor districts of Kowloon, he's a fly on the lens of the political machine operated from Beijing. His latest action, seeking recognition for the passing of Zhao Ziyang—the high-ranking official who had fallen from favor for sympathizing with the students in the 1989 Tiananmen protests—escalated to a dramatic protest by the Democratic Bloc that shut down the assembly for the first time in its history. According to Long Hair, the role of a revolutionary could be insurrectionary or legislative, and he's pushing for Beijing to allow a referendum on the chief executive position for this administrative area, giving the citizens final say on the person who emerges from the vote by the 800-member Legco. In a recent shift, Hong Kong shipping magnate Tung Chee-hwa turned over the CE post to Sir Donald Tsang, a "yes man" with a penchant for film analogies who once famously compared Hong Kong's fiscal situation to Sharon Stone in Basic Instinct for not having anything to hide.
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28 Wang Hui, China's New Order (Cambridge, 2003).
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29 Jim Yardley, "Riot in Rural China as Police Try to Halt Pollution Protest," New York Times, April 14, 2005.
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30 Howard French, "China's New Frontiers: Tests of Democracy and Dissent," New York Times, June 19, 2005.
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31 Audra Ang, "Dozens Hurt After China Factory Protest," Associated Press, August 21, 2005; Voice of America, "Anti-pollution protests break out in eastern China," August 25, 2005.
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32 Edward Cody, "China's Rising Tide of Protest Sweeping Up Party Officials," Washington Post, September 12, 2005.
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33 Edward Cody, "In Chinese Cyberspace, A Blossoming Passion," Washington Post, July 19, 2005.
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34 Echo Shan, "China: Wild parties, orgies leave the Great Wall defiled," Asian Sex Gazette, August 12, 2005.
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35 Jean Francois Billeter, Leçons sur Tchouang-tseu (Paris, 2001); idem., Études sur Tchouang-tseu (Paris, 2004).
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36 Len Bracken, Dialectical Hedonism (Washington, 2003).
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37 Paul Lafargue. The Right to Be Lazy (Ardmore, 1999).
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38 Billeter, op. cit.
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39 Elliot, op. cit.
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40 World Bank, "World Development Indicators database," July 15, 2005.
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41 Lehman Brothers, China: Gigantic Possibilities, Present Realities (New York, 2005).
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42 CIA, op. cit.
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43 China Daily (Hong Kong Edition), "Mainland surplus may top US$100b," July 13, 2005.
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44 People's Daily Online, "EU Halts Chinese Sweater Imports," July 23, 2005.
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45 Figures on child and prison labor are unreliable; these numbers are on the conservative side of estimates.
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46 Reuters, "China June trade surplus swells five-fold," July 11, 2005.
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47 WorldWatch Institute, op. cit.
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48 Hayet Sellami, "China's Power Sector: Out of Juice!" China International Business, April 1, 2005.
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49 Nayan Chanda, "Crouching Tiger, Swimming Dragon," New York Times, April 11, 2005.
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50 Economy, op. cit.
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51 Philip Thornton, "Global savings imbalance could force rates higher," The Independent, September 15, 2005; Laura D'Andrea Tyson, "What CNOOC Leaves Behind," Business Week, August 15, 2005; see also, People's Daily, "10,000 big merger deals expected in five years," November 20, 2003
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52 Mike Dolan, "The whereabouts of China's currency stash," Reuters, June 20, 2005.
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53 Mike Dolan, "The whereabouts of China's currency stash," Reuters, June 20, 2005.
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54 Mike Dolan, "The whereabouts of China's currency stash," Reuters, June 20, 2005.
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55 Widely published news articles on IMF and BIS reports and speeches by Greenspan and Summers—the later was particularly blunt in describing "screw the world" and "the world screws us" scenarios.
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56 Bruce Stannard, "Dumping of US dollar could trigger 'economic September 11,'" The Australian, August 29, 2005.
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57 http://www.engenderhealth.org/ia/cbc/china.html
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58 David Eimer, "China admits women were forced to have abortions," London Independent, September 21, 2005.
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59 CIA, op. cit.
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60 Zeng, op. cit., p. 1.
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61 Zeng, op. cit., p. 2, table 1.1.
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62 Zeng, op. cit., p. 4.
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63 Zeng, op. cit., p. 12, table 2.6
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64 Zeng, op. cit., p. 4, note 4.
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65 Takala, op. cit., p. 6, table 2.
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66 Takala, op. cit., p. 7, table 3.
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67 Takala, op. cit., p. 6, table 1.
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68 Marwaan Macan-Markar, "All growth, no jobs," Asia Times, September 3, 2005.
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69 Tim Luard, "China's 'reforming' work programme," BBC News, May 11, 2005.
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70 Keith Bradsher, "China Looms as the World's Next Leading Auto Exporter," New York Times, April 22, 2005.
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71 Schell is the author of nine books on China - Discos and Democracy and To Grow Rich Is Glorious are two titles that contain this warning.
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72 Xinhua, "Environmental issue a top concern," August 2, 2005.
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73 Economist, "A great wall of waste," August 19, 2004.
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74 English.eastday.com, "Environmental crisis possible," June 20, 2005.
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75 Xinhua, "Polluting enterprises, mines shut down," June 24, 2005.
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76 Xinhua, "Pollution poses grave threat to the poor," July 23, 2005.
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77 Xinhua, "Pollution poses grave threat to the poor," July 23, 2005.; see also CIA, op. cit.
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78 Economist, op. cit.
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79 China Radio International, "China Horizons," May 18, 2005.
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80 Xinhua, "3,988 water pollution accidents occur in four years," June 29, 2005.
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81 Xinhua, "Rivers polluted, drinking water tainted," June 30, 2005.
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82 World Health Organization.
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83 Billeter, op. cit.
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84 Yardley, op. cit.
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85 Ang, op. cit.
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86 Greenpeace International.
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87 Edward Cody, "China's Rising Tide of Protest Sweeping Up Party Officials," Washington Post, September 12, 2005.
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88 Perry Link, "China: Wiping Out the Truth," New York Review of Books, February 24, 2005.
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89 Perry Link, "China: Wiping Out the Truth," New York Review of Books, February 24, 2005.
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90 Reuters, "China sets new rules on Internet news," September 25, 2005; see also, Audra Ang, "Beijing Clinic Treats Online Addicts," Associated Press, July 3, 2005.
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91 For example, Investigation of the Chinese Peasantry by Chen Guidi and Wu Chuntao and How the Chinese Government Controls the Media by He Qinglian
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92 Chinanews.cn, "China's floating population exceeded 10 percent of total," January 6, 2005.
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93 Xinhua, "China's 800 million farmers to be free from agriculture tax," June 29, 2005.
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94 Xinhua, "Chinese farmers gain say in village affairs through 'meetings on stools,'" December 17, 2004.
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95 Economist, "Turning ploughshares into staves," June 25, 2005.
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96 Xinhua, "Forum focuses on harmonious family," August 19, 2005; Xinhua, "Happiness Project helps needy rural mothers," August 18, 2005.
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97 Watts, op. cit.
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98 Economist, "China's land disputes," June 23, 2005.
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99 Xinhua, "'White collar' now becomes unpopular title," June 25, 2005.
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100 Richard McGregor, "China sets up squads to combat terrorism," Financial Times, August 18, 2005.
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101 Watts, op. cit.
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102 Joseph Kahn, "China's 'Haves' Stir the 'Have Nots' to Violence," New York Times, December 31, 2004.
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103 Elliot, op. cit.
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104 John Ridding, "Hungry for the many tastes of freedom," Financial Times, April 10, 2005.
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105 Interview with local guide and Internet travel sites. According to the website MonkeyPeaches, John Woo will film The Battle of Red Cliff based on the screenplay by Zou Jingzhi and staring Leung Chiu-Wai and Ken Watanabe.
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106 Li Po and Tu Fu (London, 1973).
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107 The Erotic Spirit edited by Sam Hamill (Boston, 2003).
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108 Jolan Chang, Tao of Love and Sex (New York, 1977); idem., Tao of the Loving Couple (New York, 1983).
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